References



Literature Cited:

Bletz, M.C, Loudon, A.H., Becker, M.H., Bell, S.C., Woodhams, D.C., Minbiole, K.P.C., & Harris, R.N. (2013). Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: Characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.  Ecol. Lett., early view. Link


Becker, M.H. & Harris R.N. 2010. Cutaneous bacteria of the redback salamander prevent morbidity associated with a lethal disease. PLOS One. 5: e10957. 

Harris, R.N., Brucker, R.M., Walke, J.B., Becker, M.H., Schwantes, C.R., Flaherty, D.C., et al. (2009a). Skin microbes on frogs prevent morbidity and mortality caused by a lethal skin fungus. ISME J., 3, 818-824.


Harris, R.N., Lauer, A., Simon, M.A., Banning, J.L. & Alford, R.A. (2009b). Addition of antifungal skin bacteria to salamanders ameliorates the effects of chytridiomycosis. Dis. Aquat. Org., 83, 11-16.


Lötters, S. Rödder, D., Kielgast, J., & Glaw, F. (2011). Hotspots, conservation, and disease: Madagascar's megadiverse amphibians and the potential impact of chytridiomycosis. In: Biodiversity Hotspots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas. (eds. Zachos, F.E. & Habel, J.C.). Springer, New York (New York, USA), pp. 255-274.


Muletz, C.R., Myers, J.M., Domangue, R.J., Herrick, J.B. & Harris, R.N. (2012). Soil bioaugmentation with amphibian cutaneous bacteria protects amphibian hosts from infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Biol. Conserv., 152, 119-126.


Rödder, D., Kielgast, J., Bielby, J., Schmidtlein, S., Bosch, J., Garner, T.W.J. et al. (2009). Global amphibian extinction risk assessment for the panzootic chytrid fungus. Diversity, 1, 52–66.


Vredenburg, V.T., Briggs, C.J. & Harris, R.N. (2011). Host pathogen dynamics of amphibian chytridiomycosis: the role of the skin microbiome in health and disease. In: fungal diseases: an emerging threat to human, animal, and plant health (eds. Olson, L., Choffnes, E., Relman, D. & Pray, L.). National Academy Press, Washington D.C. (USA), pp. 342-355.


Vredenburg, V.T., du Preez, L., Raharivololoniaina, L., Vieites, D.R., Vences, M., & Weldon, C. (2012). A molecular survey across Madagascar does not yield positive records of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Herpetol. Notes., 5, 507-517.

Wake, D.B. & Vredenburg, V.T. (2008). Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 11466-11473.


Further Reading

Woodhams, D.C., C.C. Geiger, L.K. Reinert, L.A. Rollins-Smith, B. Lam, R.N. Harris, C.J. Briggs, V.T. Vredenburg, J. Voyles. 2012. Treatment of amphibians infected with chytrid fungus: learning from failed treatments with itraconazole, antimicrobial peptides, bacteria, and heat therapy. Dis. Aquat. Org., 98:11-25.


Becker, M.H., R.N. Harris, K.P.C. Minbiole, C.R. Schwantes, L.A. Rollins-Smith, L.K. Reinert, R.M. Brucker, R.J. Domangue, B. Gratwicke. 2011. Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytriodiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs. EcoHealth, 8:501-506.


Walke, J.B., R.N. Harris, L.K. Reinert, L.A. Rollins-Smith, D. C. Woodhams. 2011. Social immunity in amphibians:  Evidence for vertical transmission of innate defenses. Biotropica, 43:396-400.


Lam, B. A., J. B. Walke, V. T. Vredenburg, R. N. Harris. 2010. Proportion of individuals with anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis skin bacteria is associated with population persistence in the frog Rana muscosa. Biol. Conserv., 143: 529–531.

Becker M.H., R.M. Brucker, C.R. Schwantes, R.N. Harris, K.P.C. Minbiole. 2009. The bacterially-produced metabolite violacein is associated with survival in amphibians infected with a lethal disease. App. Environ. Microbiol., 75:6635-6638.


Brucker, R. M., C. M. Baylor, R. L. Walters, A. Lauer, R. N. Harris, and K. P. C. Minbiole. 2008. The identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an antifungal metabolite produced by cutaneous bacteria of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. J. Chem. Ecol., 34:39-43.


Brucker, R. M., R. N. Harris, C. R. Schwantes, T. N. Gallaher, D. C. Flaherty, B. A. Lam, K. P. C. Minbiole. 2008. Amphibian chemical defense: antifungal metabolites of the microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the salamander Plethodon cinereus. J. Chem. Ecol., 34:1422-1429.


Lauer, A., M. A. Simon, J. L. Banning, B. Lam, and R. N. Harris. 2008. Diversity of cutaneous bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from female four-toed salamanders.  The ISME J., 2: 145–157.


Belden, L. K., and R. N. Harris. 2007. Infectious diseases in wildlife:  the community ecology context. Front. Ecol. Environ.  ,5:533-539.


Lauer, A., M. A. Simon, J. L. Banning, E. André, K. Duncan, and R.  N. Harris.  2007. Common cutaneous bacteria from the eastern red-backed salamander can inhibit pathogenic fungi. Copeia, 2007: 630-640.


Woodhams, D. C., V. T. Vredenburg, M. J. Stice, M. A. Simon, D. Billheimer, B. Shakhtour, Y. Shyr, C. J. Briggs, L. A. Rollins-Smith, and R. N. Harris. 2007. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to innate immune defenses of the threatened mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa.  Biol. Conserv., 138: 390-398.


Harris, R. N., T. Y. James, A. Lauer, M. A. Simon, A. Patel. 2006. The amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is inhibited by the cutaneous bacteria of amphibian species.  EcoHealth, 3:53-56.